Levenmouth Project Hydrogen Local Energy System Goes Live

The Levenmouth Community Energy Project has now completed successful commissioning of one of the most advanced smart energy systems ever used on a local energy project. Methil will now see the deployment of seventeen hydrogen fuelled vehicles into regular use by Fife Council and a number of businesses in the Levenmouth area of Fife. This fleet of low emission vehicles includes two specially adapted hydrogen  dual-fuel bin lorries which are coming into service as part of this innovative new green energy project based at Methil docks

The Levenmouth Community Energy Project (LCEP) partners include Bright Green Hydrogen Ltd, Fife Council, Toshiba, and the Leven Valley Development Trust. LCEP was supported by £4M funding from the Local Energy Challenge Fund. Additional funding from Transport Scotland enabled installation of an additional hydrogen storage and refuelling station at the council’s Bankhead vehicle depot in Glenrothes, on the A92 trunk road.

SHFCA member Logan Energy designed, supplied and installed a state-of-the-art LCEP hydrogen-based energy storage systems and two mobile hydrogen vehicle refuelling units at Methil, in Fife, Scotland. The mobile refuelling units are self-contained modules, based upon ISO shipping container dimensions, so they can be readily transported and easily relocated from site to site. These are used to refuel one of Europe’s largest fleets of hydrogen hybrid vehicles which includes vans and refuse lorries.

The energy balancing system which was designed and installed by Logan Energy comprises a 250kWe Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Electrolyser, a gas storage arrangement and a 100kWe PEM fuel cell. Coupled with the Toshiba smart control system, the LCEP energy balancing is achieved by generating and storing hydrogen when there is excess renewable energy available.

The hydrogen can be used to power the fuel cell to provide power to a private wire network for six local buildings at times when there is insufficient renewable energy being generated. This hydrogen helps overcome the intermittency of renewable energy, as well as being compressed and stored for 350bar refuelling of vehicles.

Hydrogen has been demonstrated at Levenmouth to be a significant resource for both electricity and heat requirements, as well as a sustainable zero emission transport fuel which can drive the energy sector through the global clean energy revolution. Renewable energy from wind and solar is becoming increasingly important to Scotland’s low carbon energy supply. However, energy storage is increasingly needed to match production with demand. Hydrogen is one of the key solutions to achieving higher levels of renewable electricity generation and integration into the energy system, as demonstrated by the innovative Levenmouth Community Energy Project.

Aberdeen to Double its Hydrogen Bus Fleet

17 March 2017. The Scottish Government will invest £3million into expanding Aberdeen’s hydrogen bus project, doubling the number of buses. The announcement was made as Aberdeen hosted asuccessful Hydrogen Transport Summit event during Hydrogen Week 2017 with representatives attending from throughout Europe.

Aberdeen is now building an international reputation as a ‘hydrogen city’ as well as being the oil capital of Europe. Last month the council opened a second hydrogen fuelling station in Cove, on the south side of Aberdeen, to serve the city’s expanding fleet of cars and vans.

Aberdeen Councillor Barney Crockett said “The journey now will be going from being a world leader in oil and gas to the hydrogen leader in Europe. People from all over Europe have come to this summit which shows how our reputation is growing abroad. It’s a developing technology, large energy companies are increasingly looking into this.”

A letter from the Scottish minister for business, innovation and energy Paul Wheelhouse to council chief executive Angela Taylor confirms the investment in the hydrogen buses, adding that Holyrood had already invested £4million into the project.

SNP group leader Stephen Flynn added “£3million from the Scottish Government takes their total investment in Hydrogen buses in Aberdeen to £7million and will help to bolster Aberdeen’s place as a world leader in fuel cell technologies.”

Aberdeen Opens Second Hydrogen Refueller with Fleet of Mirai Fuel Cell Vehicles

27 February 2017. Aberdeen’s second hydrogen refuelling station was officially opened along with the launch of a fleet of 10 hydrogen fuelled Toyota Mirai cars. The £2.6million station serves the city’s expanding fleet of cars and vans and will be fully operational mid-March. Funded by Aberdeen City Council, ERDF, Transport Scotland and Nestrans, it was built and will be maintained and operated by Hydrogenics.

Located in Cove, ACHES has four electric recharging points and has the potential to produce 130kg of hydrogen per day. Enabling fast refuelling, hydrogen is dispensed at 350 bar and 700 bar pressure. There are also training facilities on site, allowing the opportunities within the hydrogen supply chain to be investigated. Working alongside local businesses, Aberdeen City Council will explore new hydrogen related products and services.

The 10 Toyota Mirai cars will be leased for three years with five going to the National Health Service (NHS), three to the Co-wheels car club, one to Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and one to Aberdeen City Council. The project is part funded by the UK Government Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) and Transport Scotland.

Aberdeen City Council’s lead member for hydrogen, Councillor Barney Crockett was joined by Toyota GB President and Managing Director - Paul Van Der Burgh, and Hydrogenics CEO – Filip Smeets to open the Aberdeen City Hydrogen Energy Storage (ACHES) facility.

Councillor Barney Crockett said: “We have a very clear hydrogen strategy for the future and ACHES adds to the expanding hydrogen infrastructure in Aberdeen. Maintaining our position as a leading world energy city, the region continues to lead the way and anchor renewable energy to the area The Aberdeen Hydrogen Bus Project has been a major success and is helping to inform the growth and development of hydrogen technologies and the hydrogen industry. The benefits of this latest project complement what has been achieved already will be felt locally, nationally and internationally.”

ACHES will help contribute to the Aberdeen City Region Hydrogen Strategy and Action plan 2015-2025 as the fleet continues to expand. Ten buses and a variety of vans and cars are in place, with more expected to be added this year.

Transport Minister Humza Yousaf said: “This latest expansion of hydrogen refuelling capabilities in Aberdeen means that a true hydrogen hub now exists in the North East. This has been possible through a funding partnership between Scottish Ministers, the EU, and the City Council. Congratulations also to the city on their successful bid to OLEV’s hydrogen vehicle support scheme, which will see one of the largest single deployments of zero emission Toyota Mirai vehicles in the country. These, along with the bus fleet and other vehicles are a highly visible sign of Scotland’s commitment to a cleaner future for transport.”

Paul Van der Burgh, Toyota GB President and Managing Director, said: “We are delighted to welcome the opening of the hydrogen station today and are very pleased that our Mirai hydrogen cars will be playing an important role in the Aberdeen City hydrogen strategy, expanding the council’s hydrogen fleet and helping to make zero emission transport a reality.”

Nestrans Director, Derick Murray, said, “Nestrans are pleased to be able to support initiatives which encourage the use of alternative fuels as these help to reduce carbon emissions from the transport network and improve air quality. Aberdeen is already home to Europe’s largest hydrogen fuel cell bus fleet and this is now the city’s second hydrogen refuelling station which really builds on the North East’s role as an energy hub.”

An international summit on the hydrogen transport supply chain will be hosted by Aberdeen. The H2 Transport Summit will bring together government, industry, local businesses and key influencers from 15 to 17 March. For further information visit www.h2aberdeen.com .



About Hydrogen as a Clean Transport Fuel:

Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are one of the technological innovations that help reduce emissions and address air pollution while offering convenience for motorists.

·         FCEVs are powered by electricity and only produce water vapour, helping to improve local air quality.

·         FCEVs do not produce CO2, or other harmful emissions from their tailpipe.

·         Hydrogen technology has potential to store energy easily.

·         Energy is stored in compressed hydrogen fuel, rather than in a battery.

Hydrogen mobility is a ‘chicken and egg’ situation. FCEVs will only be bought by customers if there is a refuelling infrastructure. Establishing and maintaining investment in fuelling infrastructure is only commercially attractive and sustainable if there are enough FCEV customers. In the longer term, hydrogen in transport can help reduce well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from the transport sector if the electricity that creates the hydrogen is generated by renewable technologies such as wind or solar.

Shell opens its First UK Hydrogen Refuelling Station with ITM Power

22 February 2017 – Shell announced the launch of its first hydrogen refuelling station in the UK at Cobham services on the M25. The new hydrogen station has been supplied by ITM Power and is the first fully branded and public hydrogen refuelling site in the UK. It is the first of three hydrogen stations Shell plans to open in the UK in 2017.

Matthew Tipper, Vice President, Future Fuels at Shell said: “Hydrogen has the potential to become a clean and versatile transport fuel for the future, and the Cobham hydrogen site is one of the ways Shell is encouraging the use of alternative fuels to contribute to the energy transition. This will provide customers with hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles the ability to refuel simply and quickly, at one of the largest petrol stations in the UK.”

Dr. Graham Cooley, CEO of ITM Power, added: “ITM Power is pleased to partner with Shell to bring their first forecourt hydrogen fuelling site to life. Electrolytic Hydrogen is the cleanest and lowest cost renewable fuel available for fuel cell electric vehicles. We look forward to working with Shell to introduce additional hydrogen stations on their forecourts in the UK in the near future.”

The opening of Shell’s first UK hydrogen site follows the success of sites in California, and in Germany where Shell is part of a joint venture with the ambition to open a network of up to 400 hydrogen sites by 2023. Shell is in the process of assessing the potential of future projects in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Austria, France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. In addition, Shell is a founding member of the Hydrogen Council, announced at Davos in January 2017, comprising energy companies, OEMs and technology partners with a collective pledge to accelerate investment in the development and commercialisation of the hydrogen and fuel cell sectors.

Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles convert hydrogen into electricity and produce only heat and water when driven. They offer an alternative to the conventional internal combustion engine, a driving experience similar to electric cars, and no local emissions. Hydrogen vehicles can drive up to 700 kilometers without refuelling and can be refuelled in a few minutes at a standard forecourt with a hydrogen pump.

Sinead Lynch, Shell’s UK Country Chair, commented: “We believe the journey to a low-carbon economy requires a coordinated and collaborative approach among organisations in the transport sector, including providers of energy and transport vehicles, users of transport vehicles, local authorities as well as government. The Cobham retail site is a small but significant first step toward developing infrastructure needed for increased usage of hydrogen vehicles.”
Bart Biebuyck, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) Executive Director, commented: “While FCH JU project HyFIVE already delivered significant results and contributed to addressing major EU challenges, we are very pleased to see an important industry player joining the venture. The opening of Shell’s first station in UK occurs one month after the Hydrogen Council announcement at Davos, and reinforces the industrial commitment towards decarbonisation.”

The hydrogen is generated on-site using an electrolyser which requires only water and electricity to generate the hydrogen gas. The hydrogen station at Cobham is the third hydrogen site in the UK to be supplied by ITM Power and opened as part of the HyFive project. The initiative has been partially funded by the European Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, and the UKs Office of Low Emission Vehicles.

Shell’s Cobham site opened in 2012 and was built for the 150,000 vehicles that travel on the M25 on a daily basis. The site received more than a million customer visits in 2016.


About Hydrogen as a Clean Transport Fuel:

Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are one of the technological innovations that help reduce emissions and address air pollution while offering convenience for motorists.

·         FCEVs are powered by electricity and only produce water vapour, helping to improve local air quality.

·         FCEVs do not produce CO2, or other harmful emissions from their tailpipe.

·         Hydrogen technology has potential to store energy easily.

·         Energy is stored in compressed hydrogen fuel, rather than in a battery.

Hydrogen mobility is a ‘chicken and egg’ situation. FCEVs will only be bought by customers if there is a refuelling infrastructure. Establishing and maintaining investment in fuelling infrastructure is only commercially attractive and sustainable if there are enough FCEV customers. In the longer term, hydrogen in transport can help reduce well-to-wheel CO2 emissions from the transport sector if the electricity that creates the hydrogen is generated by renewable technologies such as wind or solar.

ULEMCo Awarded Funding for Hydrogen Fuel Lorries Trial

SHFCA member ULEMCo, the company championing the use of ultra-low emission hydrogen fuelled vehicles, has been awarded Government funding to trial a range of vehicles with hydrogen dual-fuel technology. The funding is worth over £1.3million, and will see large vans and trucks running on hydrogen dual-fuel.

The overall aim of the £20million programme announced by the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) recently, is to cut emissions and improve air quality through use of cleaner fuel and electric vehicles. Collaborating with Lead Partner ULEMCo on the project are: Westminster City Council, Veolia, London Fire Brigade, Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, Commercial and Ocado.

ULEMCo is one of a small number of firms that set out plans for innovative ways to deploy low and ultra-low emission vehicles. The freight industry accounts for about 30% of the UK’s CO2 transport emissions, and the money will help fleets get their new vehicles on the roads from mid 2017 onwards. Aberdeen City Council has a plan to convert a range of their vehicles to dual-fuel hydrogen: refuse trucks, HGV road sweepers and delivery vans. The project will demonstrate both the emission reduction potential of hydrogen replacing diesel, as well as the practical advantages of dual fuel operation.

Announcing the innovative project funding at the Sustainable Road Transport Conference in London, Transport Minister John Hayes said: “It is fantastic that ULEMCo is willing to explore low and zero emission technologies, which will help improve air quality and reduce pollution in towns and cities. This is yet another important significant step towards this government’s commitment to reduce carbon emissions from transport to help tackle climate change. We are already making headway through our investment in low emission vehicles, greener public transport and walking and cycling, as well as grants for innovative advanced biofuels projects.”

“We are delighted to receive another vote of confidence in hydrogen dual fuel vehicles and their potential to deliver cleaner air for our towns and cities”, said Amanda Lyne, CEO of ULEMCo. “There is good synergy with this project and the work we are leading to investigate adoption of mass market hydrogen commercial vehicles for China. In particular the diversity of application and partners in this project will really help to show how hydrogen dual-fuel can become a practical solution for a wide range of fleet operations.”

The latest funding from the Low Emission Freight and Logistics Trial Fund is being delivered by OLEV and Innovate UK, with the aim of demonstrating new technologies, and to encourage the widespread introduction of low and zero emission vehicles to UK fleets.

Scottish Government Releases New Draft Energy Strategy

The Scottish Government released its new draft Energy Strategy ‘The Future of Energy in Scotland’ on 24th January: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/01/3414

The Minister for Business, Innovation and Energy, Paul Wheelhouse MSP, delivered a Ministerial Statement to the Scottish Parliament setting out key elements of draft energy strategy, boosting renewable and low-carbon energy in Scotland. The new Energy Strategy will support delivery of the third draft climate change plan, released on 19th January, which targets a 66 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2032.

In his statement the Minister included the opportunity for use of hydrogen as a zero carbon fuel at point of use which can integrate heat, power, and transport. He referred to Aberdeen’s EU supported bus project, with the largest fleet of hydrogen buses in Europe, and also mentioned the Levenmouth Community Energy project working with Fife Council on deployment of hydrogen refuse collection vehicles and van fleet.

This draft Scottish Energy Strategy sets out the Scottish Government’s vision for the future energy system in Scotland, to 2050. It articulates the priorities for an integrated system-wide approach that considers both the use and the supply of energy for heat, power and transport. The draft Energy Strategy makes clear reference to the role of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in enabling the transition to a whole energy system approach, and specifically mentions:

·         At point of use hydrogen is a zero emissions fuel, and by 2050 could be a major component of the UK’s energy system.

·         The versatility and flexibility of hydrogen gas and hydrogen fuel cells offers the potential to provide a range of services to the energy system and to integrate low carbon solutions across the heat, power and transport sectors.

·         Fuel cells could enable the more efficient use of natural gas, through combined heat and power (CHP) applications at a range of scales. Fuel cells using natural gas can be modified to operate using hydrogen at a later date.

·         The Scottish Government has supported a number of projects which demonstrate how hydrogen produced from renewable sources via electrolysis can be produced, stored, and used when required for local energy and transport. There is significant potential for these projects to be replicated or scaled-up in the future. Hydrogen may have the potential to deliver the lowest cost and least disruptive solution for the decarbonisation of heat.


The Scottish Government is now inviting responses to the consultation on the draft Energy Strategy by 30th May 2017. They are seeking views on the vision for our future energy system and how to achieve this: https://consult.scotland.gov.uk/energy-and-climate-change-directorate/draft-energy-strategy/  

Pure Energy Centre to Supply First Green Hydrogen Refueller in Wales

Pure Energy Centre (PEC), the electrical, renewable and hydrogen energy storage company is pleased to announce that it has been awarded the contract for the supply of Wales’ first 700 bar hydrogen refueling station. The award is to build a hydrogen station in Port Talbot, at the University of South Wales (USW) to refill vehicles that can travel distances of up to 350 miles.

Pure Energy Centre, who installed the UK’s first and second hydrogen renewable hydrogen refuelling stations, has been contracted to design, manufacture and supply the hydrogen filling station

Elizabeth Johnson MBE, Business Development Manager, PEC, commented: “The award of this contract marks an important step towards the roll out of 700 bar hydrogen fuelling stations in Wales. The station will be able to support hydrogen mobility in the UK and other hydrogen filling stations already on the ground. Our aim is to create an interconnected network of hydrogen stations across the UK, which will lead to a hydrogen highway, thus a wide deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.”

The hydrogen refuelling station will be installed at the University of South Wales Hydrogen Centre at Baglan Energy Park. It will consist of a 900 bar hydrogen compressor, high pressure storage system and a 700 bar hydrogen fuel dispenser.

New Climate Change Plan for Scotland Sets Ambitious 2032 Target

The new draft Climate Change Plan for Scotland was released on 19th January, and contains ambitious targets and clear proposals for using hydrogen to reduce emissions from transport and heat. This plan outlines the new target to reduce Scottish greenhouse gas emissions by 66% by 2032, as compared to the 1990 baseline.

The draft Plan contains a pathway out to 2032, broken down into sector carbon envelopes for Electricity, Residential, Transport, Services, Industry, Waste, Land Use (including Forestry and Peat) and Agriculture. Each sector contains policies and proposals designed to keep emissions within the carbon envelopes. The plan sets out 2032 targets for a fully-decarbonised electricity sector and 80% of domestic heat coming from low-carbon sources. The draft Climate Change Plan also includes extensive references to the potential for hydrogen to support decarbonisation of heat and transport, including:

·         Work with partners to determine the best approach to heat decarbonisation for buildings currently heated by natural gas, include consideration of technological solutions, including repurposing of the gas network for use of biogas and/or hydrogen

·         By 2035 the transport infrastructure will support both electric and hydrogen powered vehicles

·         Low emission vehicles will also play a role in the wider energy system. Electric and hydrogen vehicles will have a role in energy storage

The Climate Change Plan also refers extensively to the Scottish Government’s draft Energy Strategy, due to be published on 24th January 2017. In developing the draft Energy Strategy, the Scottish Government has set out, for the first time, a full statement of its ambitious long-term vision of energy supply and use in Scotland, aligned with greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. Some of these alternative energy sources may, for example, have the potential to reduce both the cost and the delivery barriers of policies or proposals in the current draft Climate Change Plan, such as the replacement of natural gas by 100% pure hydrogen for space heating in some areas of the gas network.

The Climate Change Plan identifies the role the role that other alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, gas and biofuel, can play in the transition to a decarbonised road transport sector. Specific areas of opportunity for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies include:

·         work to build on the investment in both the Aberdeen H2 bus project and the Levenmouth community energy project

·         continued work with key partners to investigate the use of hydrogen as a transport fuel

·         exploring wider environmental and economic opportunities of using hydrogen for energy applications

·         hydrogen for energy applications, especially in promoting renewables, energy balancing and storage

The draft Climate Change Plan will now be subject to a 60-day consultation period, and can be viewed here: http://www.gov.scot/isbn/9781786527431

Source: http://www.gov.scot/isbn/9781786527431

Launch of the Hydrogen Council to Support Energy Transition

Thirteen leading energy, transport and industry companies have launched a global initiative to voice a united vision and long-term ambition for hydrogen to foster the energy transition. The CEOs of the thirteen participating companies used the occasion of the World Economic Forum in Davos on 19th January 2016 to kick off this important new initiative. In the first global initiative of its kind, the ‘Hydrogen Council’ is determined to position hydrogen among the key solutions of the energy transition.

During the launch, members of the ‘Hydrogen Council’ confirmed their ambition to accelerate their significant investment in the development and commercialization of the hydrogen and fuel cell sectors. These investments currently amount to an estimated total value of €1.4 Bn/year. This acceleration will be possible if the key stakeholders increase their backing of hydrogen as part of the future energy mix with appropriate policies and supporting schemes.

Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have significant potential to enable the transition to a clean, low-carbon energy system. Completing this transition will result in greatly reducedgreenhouse gas emissions and improved air quality. The Hydrogen Council aims to both underpin and leverage the enabling role of hydrogen. The partnership of 13 players from various industry and energy sectors with global reach is committed toproviding guidance to accelerate and expand the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell solutions aroundthe world.

The move to create the ‘Hydrogen Council’ was initiated by the industry grouping of FCH JU, Hydrogen Europe. The Council will work with, and provide recommendations to, a number of key stakeholders such as policy makers, business and hydrogen players, international agencies and civil society to achieve these goals. Welcoming this development, FCH JU Executive Director Bart Biebuyck said: "The FCH JU is pleased to see that this major initiative launched by our industrial partners is seeing the daylight. We are convinced the Hydrogen Council will play a determining role in positioning hydrogen as key solution within the changing energy landscape ”.

A report entitled "How Hydrogen empowers the energy transition"  – commissioned by the Hydrogen Council –  sets out the vision of the Council and the key actions it considers fundamental for policy makers to implement, to fully unlock and empower the contribution of hydrogen to the energy transition.

This report sets out how the energy transition needs to overcome five major challenges, and transitioning towards a low-carbon economy will need nothing less than a paradigm shift, requiring large scale investments. It identifies five challenges areas where hydrogen has a role to play:

1.       Using more variable renewable energy in the power sector will unbalance supply and demand.

2.       To ensure security of supply, global and local energy infrastructure will require major transformation.

3.       Buffering of the energy system through fossil fuels will no longer be sufficient to ensure smooth functioning of the system.

4.       Some energy end uses are hard to electrify via the grid or with batteries, especially in transport but also in other sectors.

5.       Renewable energy sources cannot replace all fossil feedstocks in the (petro-)chemicals industry.

Taken together, the unique properties of hydrogen make it a promising solution to overcome the challenges facing the energy system. Hydrogen can be produced without any carbon footprint if renewable electricity is used for electrolysis, if bio-methane is used in steam methane reforming (SMR) or if SMR is equipped with CCS/CCU. The properties of hydrogen enable it to generate power and/or heat (through fuel cells, combined heat/power units (CHPs), burners, or modified gas turbines). Its chemical properties also allow for its use as feedstock in chemical processes, including production of ammonia and methanol.

Link to the full report: http://hydrogeneurope.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/20170109-HYDROGEN-COUNCIL-Vision-document-FINAL-HR.pdf

Hydrogen Fuel Project Promises to Provide Ultra-Clean Air in China

SHFCA member ULEMCo has been selected to lead a collaborative project that promises to result in significant carbon reduction and ultra-low air quality emissions for thousands of vehicles in China within the next 10 years. Liverpool based ULEMCo has received grant funding via Innovate UK from the cross Government Newton Fund. The Fund uses science and innovation partnerships to promote the economic development and welfare of countries overseas.

This £2 million business-led, 24 month project will investigate the practical challenges of developing mass market hydrogen fuelled vehicles for China, especially commercial vehicles. It will explore novel routes to ‘green’ hydrogen production, and relevant hydrogen storage approaches designed to meet the specific market challenges in China. ULEMCo will work with partners the University of Liverpool (UoL) and two Chinese organisations: the Wuhan New Energy Institute (WNEI) of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) and Hubei Swan Coatings, a premier Chinese business.

The Chinese government has prioritised the need to decarbonise energy and address air quality problems through the use of hydrogen energy from renewables and into vehicles. Hydrogen energy addresses the improved air quality and decarbonisation challenges for energy supply in China.

The project has been awarded funding by the Newton Fund: China-UK Research and Innovation Bridges Competition 2015, and incorporates critical development work on renewable generation technologies, through hydrogen storage and then use of hydrogen fuel in vehicles – all aimed at lower cost, greater practicality, ultra-lower emissions and carbon reduction.

The project will optimise photo-catalysts using high throughput robotics at the UoL, in collaboration with HUST, into a scaled production system capable of making significant volumes of hydrogen vehicle fuel. It will also develop high surface area materials for the storage of this hydrogen and its incorporation into purpose designed on-board fuel storage. ULEMCo will use its capability for safe conversion of commercial vehicles into dual fuel hydrogen / diesel combustion, and develop their approach for a better than EURO VI emission standard vehicle suitable for Chinese markets. The project will combine a new engine control approach, hydrogen selective catalysts and the low cost storage system into a mass production retrofit conversion kit for light and heavy duty commercial vehicles.

UK's Largest Fuel Cell Installation at new AECC in Aberdeen

The new £333million Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre (AECC) is to have the largest fuel cell installation in the UK and on a par with the largest in Europe. UK energy engineering specialist and SHFCA member Doosan Babcock is to supply the low emission fuel cells after a ground-breaking deal that will see the creation of a dedicated on-site Energy Centre to provide power, heat, and cooling to the new AECC. Providing a total electrical output of 1.4MW, the AECC Energy Centre will also reinforce Aberdeen’s status as Europe’s Energy Capital.

Aberdeen City Council Leader Councillor Jenny Laing said: “I am delighted that Doosan Babcock are to provide such an innovative part of the new AECC. “The new AECC will be a modern and fit-for-purpose facility, attracting bigger names in entertainment and more major international events and conferences to the north-east, so it is fitting that it will be leading in fuel cell technology. The venue will be a fantastic asset for Aberdeen as part of the City Council’s Strategic Infrastructure Plan, and it is great that such an experienced company in Doosan Babcock will be a part of our city’s future.”

Henry Boot Developments is Aberdeen City Council’s development partner for the new AECC.  Nick Harris, Director at Henry Boot Developments said “The new AECC will showcase innovation in a number of areas.  The energy centre is a great example of this, delivering greater efficiency and environmental benefits through the use of new technology. The energy centre has been designed as a highly efficient method for providing heat, power and cooling for the new AECC and other buildings on the site. It is a hybrid combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) installation utilising grid electricity, mains gas and private pipe bio methane.”

The new exhibition and conference centre for Aberdeen and the north east will generate 600 new jobs during the construction period and 352 full-time-equivalent permanent positions by year 10 of operations, and is a key element of Aberdeen City Council’s Strategic Infrastructure Plan to grow and bolster the local economy. It will anchor existing international events and competing nationally and internationally for new events, as well as by broadening the appeal of the north-east to a global audience. Over the next 10 years, the new AECC is expected to attract major artists and events to the city, and contribute an additional 4.5 million visitors, £113 million of visitor spend and £63m net GVA to the Scottish economy.

Due to open in 2019, the new venue situated beside Aberdeen International Airport will provide four times the exhibition space available at the current AECC, and increase the maximum capacity to 12,500 in the arena. Working with development partner, Henry Boot Developments, M&E project contractor, FES and principal contractor Robertson Group, Doosan Babcock will supply three 460kW Doosan Purecell® units to provide an independent source of reliable, affordable, low-emission heat and power for the 150-acre site. The landmark AECC contract reinforces the credentials of fuel cells as a leading technology in the low-emission, high-efficiency combined heat and power market.

Originally pioneered by organisations such as NASA over 50 years ago, fuel cell technology now delivers a well-proven commercial heat and power solution, delivering significant air quality improvements over conventional power generation methods. There are now more than 140 Doosan Purecell® systems providing reliable, decentralised heat and power to industrial, commercial and municipal facilities worldwide.

Doosan Babcock Chief Executive Officer Andrew Hunt said: “We are thrilled to be involved in such an exciting and transformative project. The AECC and Energy Centre will contribute in multiple ways to Scotland’s economy and environment, as well as providing a pioneering example of how cities and businesses can effectively meet environmental targets. We look forward to working with FES and the Robertson Group in delivering an innovative and practical energy solution for the AECC.”

Fuel cells transform chemical energy from fuel into final electrical and thermal energy through cogeneration. The fuel cell cogeneration process delivers heat and electricity output more efficiently than the separate production of electricity and heat. Fuel cells are flexible in terms of fuel input and can operate on natural gas from the national grid, locally produced renewable biogas or hydrogen fuel with zero emissions. Fuel cell installations can comprise single units to power commercial buildings, or multiple units for serving larger complexes, such as data centres, industrial facilities and microgrids.

Three Consecutive Years of Record Global Warmth in 2014-15-16

2016 marks three consecutive years of record warmth for the globe. Since the start of the 21st century, the annual global temperature record has been broken five times (2005, 2010, 2014, 2015, and 2016), based on data recently reported by the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

With the contribution of eight consecutive high monthly temperature records set from January to August 2016, and the remainder of the months ranking among their five warmest, 2016 became the warmest year in NOAA's 137-year series. This is the third consecutive year a new global annual temperature record has been set. The average global temperature across land and ocean surface areas for 2016 was 0.94°C above the 20th century average of 13.9°C, surpassing the previous record warmth of 2015 by 0.04°C. The global temperatures in 2016 were majorly influenced by strong El Niño conditions that prevailed at the beginning of 2016.

This marks the fifth time in the 21st century a new record high annual temperature has been set (along with 2005, 2010, 2014, and 2015) and also marks the 40th consecutive year (since 1977) that the annual temperature has been above the 20th century average. To date, all 16 years of the 21st century rank among the seventeen warmest on record (1998 is currently the eighth warmest.) The five warmest years have all occurred since 2010.

Overall, the global annual temperature has increased at an average rate of 0.07°C per decade since 1880 and at an average rate of 0.17°C per decade since 1970. Much of the record warmth for the globe can be attributed to record warmth in the global oceans. The annually-averaged temperature for ocean surfaces around the world was 0.75°C higher than the 20th century average, edging out the previous record of 2015 by 0.01°C.

Europe experienced its third warmest year, behind only 2014 (record warm) and 2015 (second warmest), making the past three years the three warmest in the 107-year continental record. The annually-averaged temperature across the United Kingdom for 2016 was 0.5°C above its 1981–2010 national average, falling just below the 10 warmest years on record, but was 0.1°C warmer than 2015.

For more information visit the NOAA 2016 report: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/global/201613

Proton Onsite signs 13MW PEM Electrolyser Contract with China

SHFCA member Proton OnSite has recently signed a contract with Guangdong Synergy Hydrogen Power Technology Co., Ltd. (“Synergy”), to provide megawatt-scale Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysers for the deployment of fuel cell-powered buses in the cities of Foshan and Yunfu, China. With a total of 13MW electrolyser capacity this is the World’s largest megawatt PEM electrolyser deal

Three of the 1 Megawatt PEM electrolyser systems will ship in summer 2017, and an additional ten systems are planned to ship over the next 18 months, with the opportunity for significant recurring systems to follow. The agreement names Proton as the exclusive supplier of electrolysers to Synergy and opens discussions for a joint venture to manufacture a portion of Proton’s M Series electrolysers in Foshan exclusively for the fueling market in China. Synergy has previously licensed fuel cell engine assembly technology from another SHFCA member, Ballard Power Systems, and is majority owner of a joint venture with Ballard in China. Synergy has also begun delivery of Ballard engines for use in powering the world's largest fuel cell bus program.

“We are thrilled that Proton was selected as the exclusive supplier of electrolysers to support the largest global deployment of fuel cell buses,” said Robert Friedland, Proton President and CEO. “The Foshan and Yunfu governments demonstrate great vision and leadership by supporting the implementation of leading electrolyser technology to enable the production of green hydrogen for their mass transit needs. It’s exciting to see how this supports air quality initiatives while contributing to continued economic development.”

Mr. Ma Dongsheng Frank, CEO of Synergy stated, “We selected Proton, the global leader in hydrogen electrolyzer technology, as our exclusive technology partner. The introduction of Proton’s technology to Foshan/Yunfu hydrogen industrial base is a strategic step toward a broader hydrogen economy by providing the possibility to store renewable energy and excess power in the form of hydrogen.”

David Bow, Proton’s Senior Vice President of Sales, Service and Marketing added, “This deal provides a significant contribution to an already strong 2017 backlog while adding to an extensive sales pipeline for our megawatt product line. Synergy, moving forward in this unprecedented scale, has the potential to accelerate other large opportunities we’re working on.”

Publication of 'Hydrogen & Fuel Cells: Opportunities for Growth - A Roadmap for the UK'

This new Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Roadmap provides an overarching industrial strategy for hydrogen and fuel cells to play a greater role in the UK’s energy mix. This report Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Opportunities for Growth: A Roadmap for the UK’ finds that the UK is already among world leaders in developing hydrogen energy and fuel cells. The Roadmap provides an overarching industrial strategy for hydrogen and fuel cells to play a greater role in the UK’s energy mix.

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: Opportunities for Growth: A Roadmap for the UK is an independent report commissioned by Innovate UK, The Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), Transport Scotland, Scottish Enterprise, Scottish Government, The UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (UKHFCA), the Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (SHFCA) and the Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN). The report was carried out by E4tech Ltd. and Element Energy and is now available for download.

Hydrogen and fuel cells can deliver secure, affordable and sustainable energy and boost UK economic growth.

Hydrogen could bring significant benefits to energy systems, to heat homes and businesses, to power vehicles, to balance intermittent renewables, and widespread adoption of efficient fuel cells could deliver a range of policy objectives. The principle benefits outlined in the report are:

·            Environmental benefits –Adoption of hydrogen and fuel cells in the various applications described in the report will improve air quality today, and following the actions described in the roadmap could reduce UK CO2 emissions by tens of millions of tonnes per year before 2050. 

·            Economic benefits - For the level of activity anticipated in this report by 2025, tens of millions of pounds and 1,000s of jobs would be created directly in the supply chain. These would then underpin future growth in key UK manufacturing sectors such as automotive and energy-intensive industries as the world adopts tighter environmental targets.

Accompanying the UK national roadmap is an appendix describing the strategies for success in 11 key market segments that the UK has the potential to show leadership and derive economic, energy and environmental benefits in the period to 2025 and beyond.

The Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise and Transport Scotland worked closely together on areas of mutual interest for the benefit of the people of Scotland. This acknowledged the synergies that hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have for all our policy interests, as well as the wider links to activity in the rest of the UK. A ‘Team Scotland’ approach was used by the Scottish funding partners in Innovate UK’s hydrogen and fuel cell roadmapping project, in consultation with the Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association.

Scotland’s Cabinet Secretary for Economy, Jobs and Fair Work Keith Brown said: “The Scottish Government and its agencies Transport Scotland and Scottish Enterprise welcome the publication of this roadmap, which will help inform our strategy for making the most of Scotland’s abundant energy resources. Scotland is already home to a number of projects that demonstrate how hydrogen and fuel cells can support an integrated approach to low carbon heat, power and transport. We look forward to working more closely with those who contributed to the roadmap as we continue to transition to a low carbon economy.”

Ian Meikle, Innovate UK’s Director for Infrastructure Systems said: “The Roadmap describes clearly how public, private, academic and other stakeholders can work together to maximize the growth of the UKhydrogen and fuel cell industry to maximize growth and deliver secure, affordable and sustainable energy. Not only are there clear environmental benefits, but following the actions described in the roadmap can drive economic growth, job creation, and competitiveness. The Roadmapping exercise itself provides an excellent illustration of how Innovate UK is able to join up activity across Government, industry and the research community, to accelerate economic growth. The project, led by the Infrastructure Systems team at Innovate UK, involved extensive literature review, deep and broad technical analysis, and stakeholder consultation, involving more than 200 individuals representing 150 organisations. We look forward to continuing to support our Steering Board partners and wider stakeholders to maximize the benefits of the Roadmap.

The organisations that led the development of this roadmap are: Innovate UK, the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS, formerly known as Department of Energy and Climate Change, DECC), Transport Scotland, the Scottish Government, Scottish Enterprise, the Scottish Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (SHFCA), the UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (UKHFCA), and the Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN). Following competitive tender, together they commissioned E4tech and Element Energy to map the opportunity in detail, aiming to drive sustainable economic growth in the UK hydrogen and fuel cell industry from now to 2025 and beyond.

Accompanying the UK national HFC Roadmap is an Appendix, describing the strategies for success in 11 key market segments that the UK has the potential to show leadership. Aspects of the roadmap will be presented at forthcoming conferences and events – look out for #UKHFCRoadmap to find an event near you.

UK Ratifies the Paris Agreement

Against the backdrop of international climate negotiations in Marrakesh, the Paris Agreement has been ratified by the UK. The UK Government played a major role when the world came together last year in Paris to reach the ambitious deal to reduce global CO2 emissions. Less than a year later, the landmark Agreement has entered into force and has been ratified by the UK as a sign of the continued commitment to climate action across the world.

Welcoming the completion of the domestic Parliamentary process that facilitated ratification, Greg Clark, Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, said ‘The Paris Agreement sends a clear signal that cutting emissions globally will not only help countries respond to the impact of climate change, but it is also compatible with economic growth. As we ratify this landmark agreement, we look ahead to continuing our leadership on climate action and ensuring that British business continues to play a key role in this new global low carbon economy. It will benefit the UK while we implement our industrial strategy to deliver the economy that works for all.’

Nick Hurd MP, Minister of State for Climate Change and Industry, who has been negotiating for the UK and promoting British business at the 22nd UN climate change Conference of the Parties (COP22) in Marrakesh said ‘The UK is ratifying the historic Paris Agreement so that we can help to accelerate global action on climate change and deliver on our commitments to create a safer, more prosperous future for us all. COP22 in Marrakesh is an important milestone which marks the shift from aspiration to implementation. We are going to use this positive momentum to grow the UK low-carbon sector, which is already worth over £46 billion, as we continue to provide secure, affordable and clean energy to our families and businesses.’

The Paris Agreement provides a framework for governments as well as business and investors to keep global warming well below 2°C, pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C. Paris negotiations have set us on an irreversible route towards low-carbon growth. The Marrakesh talks, which conclude today, focused on bringing the Paris Agreement into reality. They provided the opportunity for countries to develop detailed plans of action as the world aims to achieve carbon neutrality in the second half of the century.

During COP22 in Marrakesh, the Government has supported several key initiatives that will enable the Agreement to be implemented more effectively. These include improving national carbon reduction strategies, advancing innovation to drive forward clean energy on a global scale, increasing transparency of actions and scaling up ambitious climate finance from a range of public and private sources to avoid the most devastating effects of global warming.

Kiwa and E4tech Hydrogen Appliances report for BEIS

SHFCA member Kiwa Gastec was the lead author in a comprehensive study of the Development of a Hydrogen Fired Appliance Supply Chain, released on 16th November. Hydrogen experts from Kiwa Gastec and SHFCA member E4Tech produced the desk study-based report on behalf of DECC, now BEIS. The study was commissioned to assess the technical challenges and the costs associated with developing gas appliances to operate on 100% hydrogen.

There is a strong movement to convert the UK’s existing natural gas grid to hydrogen, driven by ambitious carbon reduction targets. Assessing the modifications required to domestic properties to receive a change in gas supply is a vital part of understanding the resources required to decarbonise the UK’s domestic heating and cooking energy supply.

The report reflects the views of stakeholders such as appliance manufacturers, trade associations, and government – and developed a way forward for the appliance industry to respond to the challenges and opportunities which would come from a hydrogen economy.

The study concluded:

  • There is an appetite for manufacturing domestic hydrogen appliances and the technical challenges can be easily overcome;
  • Clear policy direction and a concrete plan for hydrogen roll-out are necessary to provide the impetus for research and development into hydrogen-ready appliances;
  • Appliances designed to burn hydrogen should be independently tested to standards extended for hydrogen, to ensure that they function safely and effectively;
  • Training for gas installers needs to be facilitated, defined by standards extended to consider hydrogen.

Kiwa Gastec’s Principal Consultant, Iain Summerfield, was involved in various aspects of the study. He commented: “This report demonstrates the commercial potential for the production of hydrogen appliances. This is one of several hydrogen-related projects Kiwa are currently involved in, the outcomes of all, when considered together, could be hugely significant. The crucial role Kiwa are playing in these studies is testament to the innovative thinking and expertise of our hydrogen team.”

For more information please email iain.summerfield@kiwa.co.uk or call 01242 677877. To access the full report please follow the link embedded in article title.

ERP Report on the Role of Hydrogen in the UK Energy System

The Energy Research Partnership has released a new report on the Role of Hydrogen in the UK Energy System. This report concludes that the biggest challenges for widespread use are where large volumes of hydrogen will come from and how it could be decarbonised. Concerns are raised around the associated costs and deliverability of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) infrastructure that will be essential to handle the large volumes of CO2 from the steam methane reforming plant.  Upstream emissions from the extraction of natural gas are significant and new technologies will be needed to produce zero-carbon hydrogen, if it is to play a significant role in the long-term. Widespread use of hydrogen requires deliberate intervention, which includes a strategic, long-term plan to make hydrogen zero-carbon and to address challenges, including its impact on energy security.

Hydrogen is already entering the energy system and appears to be a convincing pathway to decarbonise heat and transport. Its widespread use requires deliberate intervention, which includes a strategic, long-term plan to make hydrogen zero-carbon and to address challenges, including its impact on energy security. The biggest challenges are where large volumes of hydrogen will come from and how to decarbonise it. The report highlights concerns around the associated costs and deliverability of the necessary steam methane reforming plant and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) infrastructure needed to handle the large volumes of CO2.

Natural gas will be used to produce a majority of the hydrogen, as it is cheaper than from electricity, but residual emissions from CCS and hydrocarbon extraction are significant and will need to be addressed. Surplus electricity from wind will produce only a small fraction of the hydrogen needed for heat: meeting this demand with electricity alone would require about 70 GW of additional nuclear capacity – seven times current capacity. Replacing natural gas with hydrogen for heating will increase gas consumption and produce more CO2. Some of the increase could be offset by measures to reduce energy demand for heat. Blending into the gas supply provides little carbon reduction, even at high blends, and would be expensive, so switching has to be done by area and straight to 100% hydrogen. Imports of natural gas mean most of the upstream emissions from extraction are likely to be outside the UK. This may be an issue for meeting global climate targets set out in the Paris Agreement. Zero-carbon hydrogen could be imported from sunny regions, such as North Africa, using very-high temperature solar thermal. But these are unlikely to be available to meet early bulk demand.

Hydrogen is already playing a valuable, diffuse role in the energy system and helping to manage the electricity grid, fuel vehicle fleets and industry. These niche applications can develop without hydrogen from natural gas, but will benefit from removing regulatory and market barriers to help them become viable. This report feeds into ERP’s new project on the Transition to Low-carbon Heat, along with a new report on Heating Buildings. The Low-carbon Heat project is looking at options for low-carbon heat, with the aim of providing insight into the governance and timeframe aspects of the trajectory to 2050 for decarbonising domestic and commercial heat. Building on techno-economic analysis of specific heating technologies it will investigate how top-down and bottom-up aspects join up.

Committee on Climate Change report on Next Steps for UK Heat Policy

The UK Committee on Climate Change have released their report on ‘Next Steps for UK Heat Policy’.

This includes clear messages about the role for hydrogen in decarbonising heat in the UK. Heating and hot water for UK buildings make up 40% of our energy consumption and 20% of our greenhouse gas emissions. It will be necessary to largely eliminate these emissions by around 2050 to meet the targets in the Climate Change Act and to maintain the UK contribution to international action under the Paris Agreement.

The report sets out the need for a credible new strategy and a much stronger policy framework for buildings decarbonisation over the next three decades. Many of the changes that will reduce emissions will also contribute toward modern, affordable, comfortable homes and workplaces and can be delivered alongside a major expansion in the number of homes. This report considers that challenge and sets out possible steps to meet it.

Infographic by UK Committee on Climate Change about 'Next Steps for UK Heat Policy'

Infographic by UK Committee on Climate Change about 'Next Steps for UK Heat Policy'

H2 Aberdeen Wins the LowCVP 2016 'Grand Prix' Award

Last night the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP) announced the 2016 Low Carbon Champions at the industry’s leading networking dinner, held in association with Cenex LCV2016, in Milton Keynes. The Champions Awards celebrate achievement and innovation in moving the UK to lower carbon road transport.

The H2 Aberdeen initiative, which has developed a strategy for the introduction of cleaner, hydrogen-powered transport, achieved the Grand Prix Award: Outstanding Achievement in Low Carbon Transport, and also the Low Carbon Road Transport Initiative of the Year at the annual Low Carbon Champions awards.

H2 Aberdeen brings together a strategy and series of projects to create a cleaner transport system in the city, and will cut emissions from public transport, the council fleet and other vehicles through the introduction and operation of hydrogen fuel cell electric buses, vans and cars. H2 Aberdeen has introduced Europe’s largest fleet of hydrogen fuel cell buses, as well as the UK’s largest hydrogen production and bus refuelling station provided by SHFCA members BOC Linde and Hydrogenics. The bus companies using the technology – First and Stagecoach - report that the vehicles are proving to be extremely efficient compared to their diesel equivalents.

Aberdeen City Council Leader Councillor Jenny Laing said “The project was identified as helping to promote technology and jobs in an energy sector alternative to oil and gas, and with European Union funding secured, it has been due to the hard work by City Council staff and the partners which has made it a good solid project – it’s the first step in making Aberdeen a leading city in demonstrating and developing H2 and fuel cell technologies. The partnership approach has ensured that the experience and learning shared between project partners to further enhance next generation vehicles in the hydrogen sector. The result is a success story which has seen this green fleet travel the equivalent distance of 10 times around the world, reducing carbon emissions in the city and introducing the travelling public to a new, environmentally friendly form of public transport.”

The H2 buses produce no harmful emissions as the only output is water vapour and it is estimated that over the four years of the project lifetime, the buses will save more than 1,000 tonnes of carbon emissions – helping the city be a smarter and better place for everyone.

The LowCVP Managing Director Andy Eastlake said about the Awards: “All the entries short-listed for the Champions Awards deserve recognition for the contribution they are making to cutting carbon emissions from road transport. There is a lot of work still to be done to achieve the long-term objectives set under the Climate Change Act, but the dynamism and determination shown by so many of those involved today shows how UK industry and operators have the drive and potential to achieve them.”

Richard Bruce, Director Energy, Technology and Innovation at the Department for Transport – one of the Awards judges - said: “It’s fantastic to see another array of ground-breaking companies vying for the Low Carbon Champions Awards this year. It’s precisely because of the synergies between environmental improvement and great commercial opportunity – synergies that the ideas and technologies here demonstrate so well – that the UK Government remains so committed to this agenda.”

The Champions Awards judging panel was comprised of 22 senior executives from across a range of UK organisations with a stake in the low carbon road transport agenda.

Well done Aberdeen!

Source: http://www.lowcvp.org.uk/news

US and China Ratify the Paris Agreement

The US and China have both formally joined the Paris global climate agreement on the eve of the G20 summit in Hangzhou. The Paris deal is the world's first comprehensive climate agreement, but must first be ratified by at least 55 countries, which between them produce 55% of global carbon emissions.

Before the US and China made their announcement, the 23 nations that had so far ratified the agreement accounted for just over 1% of emissions. The US and China are together responsible for 40% of the world's carbon emissions. Members of China's National People's Congress Standing Committee formally adopted the Paris Agreement on Saturday morning, and the White House issued a statement at the same time announcing the US move.

This announcement marks a milestone in President Obama and President Xi’s legacy of climate leadership and represents a significant step towards the Paris Agreement entering into force this year. In addition, both sides stated their intention to prepare and publish their respective “mid-century, long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies” under the Paris Agreement.  The United States has previously committed to publishing its strategy this year, and today, China committed to prepare its strategy as early as possible. The US and China also announced that they will engage in technical collaboration and consultation on their strategies.

Both leaders affirmed their commitment to work together to reach successful outcomes this year in adopting an ambitious amendment to the Montreal Protocol to phasedown HFCs and on a market-based measure to reduce carbon emissions from international aviation, and announced continued bilateral climate cooperation and domestic action.

The UK has still to ratify the Paris deal.